250 questions match your search.


Which of the following statements about thiopental is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

When the inspired gas is changed from air to 20% oxygen and 80% nitrous oxide, PaO2 increases because

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 62-year-old man is scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting. During induction of anesthesia with fentanyl, high peak inspiratory pressures occur with manual ventilation, and peripheral oxygen saturation decreases from 100% to 94%. The most appropriate management is administration of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 95-kg, 65-year-old woman receives sevoflurane and pancuronium during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three minutes after administration of neostigmine 5 mg and atropine 1.2 mg, the twitch height returns to normal. Spontaneous tidal volume is 500 ml when the endotracheal tube is removed. In the PACU she reports dyspnea and appears distressed. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the respiratory distress?

BASIC Respiratory & Critical Care Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The twitch responses shown are from a healthy 80-kg patient anesthetized with fentanyl and nitrous oxide. Relaxant drugs X and Y are most likely

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Alveolar and inspired anesthetic concentrations equilibrate more rapidly with nitrous oxide than with desflurane because nitrous oxide

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following chemotherapeutic drugs is a cause of pulmonary fibrosis?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following increases during infusion of epinephrine?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 40-year-old woman receives alfentanil 75 mcg/kg followed by an infusion of 1.5 mcg/kg/min for a one-hour cholecystectomy and cholangiogram. This regimen could be associated with each of the following EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Halothane anesthesia is usually associated with an increase in

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Fentanyl-induced bradycardia is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The decreased duration of action of an intravenous dose of fentanyl compared with an intravenous dose of morphine is best explained by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning the effects of glycopyrrolate is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with thiopental, etomidate causes

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In a patient with chronic renal failure, which of the following statements concerning muscle relaxants is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is the most likely cause of the rapid onset of local anesthesia when sodium bicarbonate is added to lidocaine?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In an unpremedicated, spontaneously breathing patient, an alveolar halothane concentration of 0.74% in oxygen is consistently associated with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The effect of succinylcholine is terminated at postsynaptic effector cells by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is the most likely adverse effect of prolonged intravenous administration of nitroglycerin?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning diazepam is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following statements concerning norepinephrine is true EXCEPT:

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 72-year-old woman with stable angina is undergoing bowel resection. Anesthesia is induced with etomidate. Five minutes after starting isoflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 50%, her blood pressure decreases from 110/84 to 70/40 mmHg. The most likely cause is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with a patient without liver disease, a patient with cirrhosis will have

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Mivacurium-induced neuromuscular blockade is prolonged for the greatest period of time in patients who have which of the following conditions?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 25-year-old man requires exploratory laparotomy following a motor vehicle accident. He is acutely intoxicated with alcohol. Which of the following is the most likely result of the alcohol ingestion?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

The low fetal/maternal plasma ratio of bupivacaine compared with lidocaine is due to

ADVANCED OB Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In a 35-year-old patient, which of the following is associated with an increased duration of clinical narcosis following infusion of a total dose of 10 mg/kg thiopental over three hours?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following is an effect of acute preoperative oral administration of clonidine EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with dopamine, dobutamine

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

A patient receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy for depression undergoes an emergency cholecystectomy. Which of the following is the best means of providing postoperative analgesia in this patient?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Which of the following is a potentially beneficial effect of ketamine used for induction of anesthesia?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the effects of epidural morphine is most resistant to intravenous naloxone?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with other volatile inhalation anesthetics, desflurane has which of the following characteristics?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The decreased duration of action of an intravenous dose of fentanyl compared with an intravenous dose of morphine is best explained by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following findings would be considered normal in the EEG of an adult?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General Cardiac

An increased initial dose and a decreased maintenance dose of pancuronium are required in patients with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A newly developed inhalational anesthetic has a blood-gas partition coefficient of 0.2. Which of the following statements best describes this drug compared with isoflurane?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

During an otherwise uneventful nitrous oxide-sevoflurane anesthetic in a spontaneously breathing patient, 85% nitrous oxide is accidently administered, resulting in a PO2 of 48 mmHg. Which of the following would be expected?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The following hemodynamic values are obtained two hours after coronary artery bypass surgery: Cardiac index 1.7 L/min/m2; Pulm Art. Occ. Pressure 22 mmHg; MAP 60 mmHg; Urine volume 0.2 ml/kg/hr. The most appropriate management is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

Desflurane is delivered using a vaporizer that contains internal heaters because

BASIC Equipment & Physics Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Ketamine decreases

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following premedicant drug combinations is most effective in preventing passive regurgitation during anesthesia?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning the cardiovascular effects of intravenous bupivacaine is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

The use of droperidol as a preanesthetic medication has been associated with each of the following EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Inhibition of labor by terbutaline causes each of the following maternal side effects EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

The drug that causes dose-dependent EEG evidence of both central nervous system excitation and depression is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Nonsteroidal analgesics such as aspirin decrease pain by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A patient with end-stage renal disease has prolonged ventilatory depression after administration of morphine. The most likely cause is increased

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following muscle relaxants in an ED95 dose would have the longest duration of action in a patient with renal failure?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following must be considered during perioperative management of a patient on long-term lithium therapy?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Administration of succinylcholine 1 mg/kg to a pregnant woman rarely causes fetal neuromuscular blockade. Which characteristic of succinylcholine best explains this phenomenon?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

A 64-year-old man with diabetes mellitus well controlled with NPH insulin undergoes lower extremity revascularization. Following administration of protamine 10 mg, the patient has facial flushing and blood pressure of 60/30 mmHg. The most appropriate initial step in management is administration of which of the following drugs?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Which of the following is a characteristic of phase II neuromuscular block?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A complication of terbutaline therapy to terminate premature labor is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

The figure describes the uptake of nitrous oxide 75% by individual tissue groups (VRG = vessel-rich group, MG = muscle group, FG = fat group) and their sum (total uptake, TU). Which set of labels accurately describes the curves?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Succinylcholine can be administered safely to a patient with

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Inhalation induction of anesthesia is more rapid in a 6-month-old infant than in an adult because infants have

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Which of the following statements concerning a patient who has been receiving nitroprusside for several days is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Neostigmine administered intravenously without atropine can produce each of the following EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following conditions is associated with upregulation of the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

When antagonizing neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium, the combination of simultaneously administered anticholinergic and anticholinesterase drugs that is most likely to produce bradycardia is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning the pharmacokinetics of local anesthetics is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Intraocular pressure is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The best premedication regimen for a known active narcotic addict would include

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

A patient with end-stage renal disease has prolonged ventilatory depression after administration of morphine. The most likely cause is increased

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following drugs has the shortest elimination half-life?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

During anesthesia with nitrous oxide 65% in oxygen, fentanyl, and pancuronium, nitroprusside is administered to decrease arterial pressure to 85/50 mmHg. A decrease in PaO2 from 120 to 65 mmHg is most likely caused by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Metoclopramide acts to

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with thiopental, methohexital is characterized by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

During pulmonary artery catheterization, a 65-year-old man receives morphine 6 mg and scopolamine 0.4 mg intravenously. The pulse oximeter indicates desaturation, which quickly resolves with stimulation. When the drapes are removed, he has unilateral eye pain, decreased visual acuity, and dilated and irregular pupils. These eye symptoms are most likely caused by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In the diagram, point "X" represents a patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction. The points labeled 1, 2, and 3 each represent the results of a different therapeutic intervention. Which of the following represents the most likely intervention at each point?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

A 72-year-old patient who takes levodopa and carbidopa is undergoing colon resection. Metoclopramide is administered preoperatively and anesthesia is maintained with proposal, fentanyl, and nitrous oxide, with vecuronium for muscle relaxation. Fifteen minutes after reversal of muscle relaxation with neostigmine and atropine and tracheal extubation, the patient has dyspnea and muscular rigidity. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Neostigmine administered intravenously without atropine can produce each of the following EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

At the end of an anesthetic in which a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant was administered, the least number of receptors are blocked

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with an induction dose of thiopental (4 mg/kg), an induction dose of propofol (2.5 mg/kg) produces

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A patient is anesthetized using an inhaled anesthetic with a blood/gas partition coefficient of 13.0. Recovery time depends primarily on

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

When succinylcholine is administered intravenously to infants, intragastric pressure

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Which of the following statements concerning the volume of distribution of a drug is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Dantrolene

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following findings is most likely in patients receiving intravenous milrinone?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

Compared with thiopental, methohexital is characterized by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The action of dantrolene on skeletal muscle

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with isoflurane, desflurane

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning the metabolism of atracurium is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Anesthesia is induced with halothane in a 3-year-old girl. Sixty seconds after administration of succinylcholine 1 mg/kg intravenously, heart rate decreases rapidly from 120 to 60 bpm. The most likely cause is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Compared with morphine 5 mg administered epidurally at T12, morphine 5 mg administered intravenously is associated with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Epinephrine is less effective in prolonging epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine than epidural anesthesia with lidocaine because

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

A 69-year-old man is confused and agitated one hour after preoperative intramuscular administration of scopolamine for awake fiberoptic laryngoscopy. SpO2 measured by pulse oximetry is 97%. Which of the following drugs is most appropriate for treatment of the change in mental status?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Hyperkalemia in response to the administration of an intubating dose of succinylcholine is associated with each of the following disorders EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Ten days after sustaining burns over 40% of his body surface area, a patient requires greater than expected doses of vecuronium for adequate relaxation of skeletal muscle. The primary cause is increased

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 15-kg, 3-year-old child is anesthetized for an inguinal hernia repair with halothane and nitrous oxide. The trachea is intubated after administration of succinylcholine 30 mg. At the conclusion of the 45-minute procedure, the child is not breathing; a peripheral nerve twitch monitor indicates no response to a train-of-four stimulus. Further investigation is most likely to show

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Which of the following is a sign of cyanide toxicity during nitroprusside therapy?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 76-year-old patient is restless and hallucinating in the preoperative holding area. He received morphine 5 mg and scopolamine 0.4 mg intramuscularly as premedication and is now breathing oxygen 2 L/min through nasal prongs. SpO2 is 98%. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is decreased by alkalinization of a 1.5% lidocaine solution?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Which of the following is the most likely effect of intramuscular ketamine used for induction of anesthesia in a 2-year-old child undergoing elective surgery?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Which of the following is an effect of acetazolamide?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 24-year-old woman requires anesthesia for emergency repair of open fractures of the tibia and fibula. She used cocaine two hours ago. Blood pressure is 170/110 mmHg. Each of the following is useful in managing the hypertension EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following is a characteristic of prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil) pharmacology in an infant EXCEPT:

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Each of the following would be expected after preoperative oral administration of clonidine EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The highest serum fluoride levels are seen following the administration of which of the following volatile anesthetics?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following is consistent with exposure to organophosphates EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In a patient taking a beta-adrenergic blocker, the drug most likely to produce atrioventricular junctional block is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following drugs exerts a vasoconstrictor effect by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine at the neuronal synapse?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The duration of action of an induction dose of thiopental is determined primarily by its

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following drugs increases the duration of succinylcholine action EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 32-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure has irreversible neuromuscular blockade two hours after tracheal intubation with a muscle relaxant. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A previously healthy 46-year-old woman has severe substernal chest pain one hour after receiving morphine sulfate 10 mg intramuscularly for an elective cholecystectomy. Vital signs, SpO2, and findings on a five-lead ECG on the operating room monitor are within normal limits. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

A 16-year-old girl is receiving isoflurane, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and pancuronium for insertion of a Harrington rod. In order to perform a "wake-up test" the muscle relaxant was antagonized with neostigmine 2.5 mg and atropine 1 mg. The patient abruptly moved all extremities and was given thiopental 100 mg and succinylcholine 100 mg rapidly. Forty-five minutes later no twitch could be elicited with a nerve stimulator. The most likely explanation is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Compared with midazolam, diazepam has which of the following characteristics?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A newly developed volatile anesthetic has a MAC of 10% in oxygen for adults. Which of the following statements concerning this anesthetic is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

To predict the requirement for isoflurane in milliliters of vapor per minute during closed circuit anesthesia, each of the following is necessary EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Normal pseudocholinesterase

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following limits the use of nalbuphine for relief of postoperative pain?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A patient with jaundice who has a minimally elevated SGOT (AST), markedly elevated alkaline phosphatase, and normal prothrombin time is to receive a muscle relaxant. Which of the following is most likely in this patient?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with lidocaine, bupivacaine is more likely to cause dysrhythmias because it

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Each of the following is an adverse effect of ritodrine used for suppression of labor EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

Each of the following conditions causes resistance to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 73-year-old woman with a preoperative serum creatinine concentration of 2.1 mg/dl develops oliguria during enflurane anesthesia. Urine sodium concentration is 10 mEq/L and urine osmolality is 450 mOsm/L. The most likely cause of these findings is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A patient has severe hypotension, bronchospasm, and edema of the upper airway after injection of radiocontrast medium during cerebral angiography. The most appropriate immediate treatment is administration of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

A healthy, but obese, 110-kg woman is scheduled for gastric stapling. Compared with that required at her ideal weight, the dose of thiopental required for anesthetic induction would likely be increased because of changes in

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 65-year-old patient receiving long-term clonidine therapy fails to take it one day before surgery. This would most likely

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is an effect of clonidine?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A patient has tonic movements of the head and neck, nystagmus, and slurred speech after receiving metoclopramide for nausea after nitrous oxide-opioid anesthesia. The most appropriate pharmacologic treatment is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In a patient who is to undergo clipping of a cerebral aneurysm, an advantage of isoflurane over nitroprusside for induction of hypotension is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

Which of the following statements concerning hyperkalemia after succinylcholine administration to a patient with a spinal cord injury is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is a respiratory effect of 1 MAC halothane?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with similar use in adults, routine use of succinylcholine in children is hazardous because of the increased risk for which of the following?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

Which of the following drugs increases cerebral blood flow while decreasing cerebral metabolic rate?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

Which of the following statements is true concerning administration of 70% nitrous oxide to a patient with an unrecognized pneumothorax?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Miosis, incontinence, excess salivation, and convulsions are toxic effects of

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Following enflurane anesthesia, serum free fluoride concentration is most likely to be increased in association with long-term use of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning flumazenil is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Desflurane at a stable alveolar concentration of 7%

BASIC Equipment & Physics Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Trimethaphan causes each of the following EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The correlation between anesthetic potency and lipid solubility

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following characteristics of local anesthetics is associated with long duration of action?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is an effect of metoclopramide?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In normal tissue, which property of drugs has the greatest effect on the speed of onset of a local anesthetic?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Prolonged respiratory depression following administration of morphine is more likely in patients with chronic renal faillure than in patients with normal kidney function because of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

During induction of anesthesia in a 70-year-old man with aortic stenosis, the blood pressure decreases from 140/ 80 to 70/45 mmHg as the cardiac rhythm changes from normal sinus at 70 bpm to junctional at 120 bpm. The most appropriate initial therapy would be

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General Cardiac

Spontaneously breathing enflurane at 1 MAC causes increased

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with morphine, a single epidural administration of fentanyl is associated with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

After administration of a single dose of vecuronium, function returns last to which of the following muscles?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Ninety minutes after administration of succinylcholine 1 mg/kg to a 28-year-old woman, the train-of-four shows a T4:T1 ratio of 25%. This is most consistent with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning neuroleptic malignant syndrome is true?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

In a patient who has undergone cholecystectomy, which of the following is the most likely pulmonary effect of systemically administered opioids?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following is a recognized complication during a transurethral resection for which glycine is used as an irrigant EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

A patient with metastatic carcinoma and chronic renal failure has tremors, fasciculations, mydriasis, and hyperreflexia after several days of therapy with high doses of meperidine for analgesia. Which of the following is most likely to occur if the meperidine is continued?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The need for increased doses of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants in patients with extensive burns is best explained by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Of the following, the most reliable criterion for adequate clinical reversal of neuromuscular blockade is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 45-year-old man is scheduled for exploratory laparotomy. Six months ago, he received doxorubicin (Adriamycin) therapy for testicular cancer. This patient is at increased risk for

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 70-kg man has stable 80% neuromuscular block induced with d-tubocurarine. Compared with neostigmine 3 mg, antagonism with edrophonium 70 mg will

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

One week after sustaining third-degree burns over 40% of his body surface area, a patient requires general anesthesia for debridement and skin grafting. Which of the following responses to neuromuscular blockers is most likely?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A previously healthy 28-year-old woman scheduled for laparoscopic tubal ligation becomes, agitated and refuses to undergo the procedure after being brought to the operating room. This behavior most likely resulted from preoperative administration of

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Prilocaine is NOT recommended for obstetric regional anesthesia because it

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

During recovery from halothane anesthesia, an alveolar concentration of 0.1% will have the greatest effect on

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

At equipotent doses, which of the following opioids is most likely to migrate cephalad in cerebrospinal fluid after epidural administration?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Intrathecally administered opioids exert their analgesic effects primarily in the

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

During therapy for eclampsia, toxic blood levels of magnesium sulfate can be distinguished from therapeutic levels by the presence of

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

A 60-kg, 38-year-old woman undergoes laparoscopic tubal ligation. Paralysis is maintained for one hour with infusion of succinylcholine at a rate of 10 mg/min. At the end of the procedure, respirations are shallow and tetanic fade is noted on neuromuscular stimulation. In addition to continued mechanical ventilation, which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 70-kg patient experiences pain on incision of a thigh abscess. The area around the abscess had been infiltrated with 30 ml of 1% lidocaine in 1:200,000 epinephrine. The local anesthetic was most likely ineffective because of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

During nitrous oxide anesthesia, which of the following expands most rapidly?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following laboratory studies is the best indicator of reversal of the effects of warfarin?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

To predict the requirement for isoflurane in milliliters of vapor per minute during closed circuit anesthesia, each of the following is necessary EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 64-year-old, 70-kg woman treated with lithium for manic-depressive psychosis is given methohexital 90 mg and succinylcholine 35 mg intravenously for electroconvulsive therapy. Ten minutes later she remains sedated and the peripheral nerve stimulator shows a decreased twitch response. The most likely explanation is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Metoclopramide

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 66-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who underwent colectomy 12 hours ago has been receiving an epidural infusion of fentanyl at a rate of 100 mcg/hr. Which of the following is LEAST likely to develop?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following statements concerning pipecuronium is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with the response of a normal patient, administration of a bolus dose of pancuronium (0.15 mg/kg) to a patient with cirrhosis and ascites would be associated with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Long-term use of cimetidine is associated with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In treating arterial hypertension in a patient with a head injury, the agent LEAST likely to increase intracranial pressure is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

Which of the following drugs administered to a parturient eliminates fetal heart rate variability?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

The effect of neomycin at the neuromuscular junction is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following muscle relaxants is most likely to result in histamine release following administration of a bolus dose sufficient to facilitate rapid endotracheal intubation?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The induction dose of thiopental should be decreased in each of the following situations EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 68-year-old man who is scheduled for outpatient cystoscopy has non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus controlled with glipizide (Glucatrol) 5 mg twice daily. He has had nothing to eat since awakening this morning and has not taken glipizide today. His blood glucose level is 185 mg/dl. Before proceeding, the most appropriate management is to administer

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

A 100-kg, 42-year-old woman received enflurane and oxygen for clipping of an intracranial aneurysm lasting eight hours. In the first two postoperative hours, urine output is 2 liters. Serum sodium concentration is 152 mEq/L. Urine osmolality and central venous pressure are low. Which of the following is best used to establish the diagnosis?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

An obese patient and a lean patient receive halothane for the same duration and at the same inspired tension. Postoperatively, the obese patient would demonstrate

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 20-year-old man with a history of substance abuse is undergoing preoperative evaluation. Which of the following findings suggests current use of cocaine?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

During induction of anesthesia for cesarean delivery, pancuronium is inadvertently substituted for succinylcholine. The neonate shows no clinical signs of muscle relaxation because pancuronium is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Bupivacaine is more likely than lidocaine to cause refractory cardiac arrest because bupivacaine

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In a patient taking a beta-adrenergic blocker, the drug most likely to produce atrioventricular junctional block is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following conditions is a contraindication to the use of succinylcholine?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Meperidine has a more rapid onset of action than morphine following intravenous injection because of its

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following statements about muscle rigidity induced by opioids is true EXCEPT:

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A patient has palpitations, flushing, and light-headedness after gingival injection of a local anesthetic. This reaction is most likely caused by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 40-year-old man requires brief surgical relaxation after administration of neostigmine and glycopyrrolate for reversal of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Succinylcholine 1 mg/kg is administered intravenously. Compared with a patient who has not had prior reversal of neuromuscular blockade, which of the following characterizes the succinylcholine blockade in this patient?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In a patient who is receiving nitroglycerin intravenously after a coronary artery operation, peripheral oxygen saturation is 85% and PaO2 is 200 mmHg. The most appropriate management is administration of

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The EKG rhythm shown developed during cholecystectomy in a 62-year-old man who had a myocardial infarction and is taking atenolol. The drug of choice for treating this arrhythmia is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

The metabolism of which of the following hypotensive agents is most likely to be affected in patients with severe renal disease?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following would be most likely to increase the duration of seizures during electroconvulsive therapy using a barbiturate and succinyleholine for general anesthesia?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

The physiologic function most likely to be spared when a local anesthetic differential nerve block is administered is

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Delirium produced by high doses of atropine can be reversed by intravenous injection of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Preoperative evaluation shows a serum sodium concentration of 140 mEq/L, serum chloride concentration of 90 mEq/L, PaCO2 of 46 mmHg, and arterial pH of 7.50. These findings are most indicative of prior treatment with

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Intravenous administration of mannitol during a craniotomy

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

Awakening after a single dose of thiopental is caused by redistribution from the brain primarily to which of the following sites?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Compared with epidural administration of hydrophilic opioids, epidural administration of lipophilic opioids is associated with

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Which of the following statements concerning ketorolac is true?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

After termination of cardiopulmonary bypass, a patient who is chronically digitalized receives digoxin 0.5 mg in error. An ECG shows sinus bradycardia with intermittent sinus arrest; blood pressure is 90/60 mmHg. Which of the following drugs is contraiindicated in this patient?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

A 30-year-old woman has an abrupt change from sinus to nodal rhythm with unchanged heart rate on ECG during induction of halothane anesthesia. Which of the following is the most likely result of this change?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following opioids is vagolytic?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Following protamine administration, profound pulmonary hypertension is most likely initiated by release of

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

A single dose of etomidate for induction of anesthesia will cause

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Intrabiliary pressure will be increased to the greatest extent by intravenous administration of

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 35-year-old woman with a grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage is undergoing clipping of a middle cerebral artery aneurysm 48 hours after initial hemorrhage. Which of the following drugs used to induce hypotension is LEAST likely to affect intracranial pressure?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

The alveolar concentrations of anesthetics increase more rapidly in children than in adults because of a greater

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Pediatric

A patient has severe pain after total knee arthroplasty. Systemic opioids are most likely to modify the pain through action at which of the following sites?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following decreases hepatic blood flow EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Each of the following is an effect of rapid infusion of mannitol EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Neuro

The second gas effect refers to

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is an effect of nitrous oxide?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following decreases the clearance of atracurium?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

In patients with renal failure, which of the following muscle relaxants has the most prolonged elimination half-life?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Pancuronium blocks the bradycardic effect of fentanyl by a direct effect on

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 70-year-old man who has just undergone an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair under halothane anesthesia develops hypertension, dyspnea, and cyanosis shortly after awakening in the recovery room. Administration of furosemide 20 mg intravenously improves the cyanosis within 10 minutes. This immediate effect of furosemide is best explained by

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Which of the following is an effect of ketorolac administered after vaginal hysterectomy?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is a known effect of propofol?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 55-kg, 70-year-old woman with mild chronic renal failure is unresponsive 20 hours after an uneventful coronary artery bypass grafting procedure. Anesthetic drugs included fentanyl 3000 mcg, diazepam 35 mg, and pancuronium 20 mg. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Cardiac

Each of the following improves coagulation in patients with uremia EXCEPT

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

A patient develops jaundice one week after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy during halothane anesthesia. Laboratory studies show an increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration, a mildly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase concentration, and a markedly increased conjugated bilirubin fraction. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

The short clinical duration of action of a single dose of fentanyl is a result of its

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following drugs is LEAST likely to cross the placenta?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

When used with morphine for premedication, which of the following drugs is most likely to cause sedation?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is the most reliable indicator of antagonism of nondepolarizing neuromuscular block sufficient for airway protection?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

For 30 minutes, a patient has been receiving oxygen 2 L, nitrous oxide 2 L, and halothane from an agent-specific vaporizer set at 1%. A mass spectrometer sampling gas from the patient's airway shows an end-tidal halothane concentration of 0.7%. The most likely explanation for this difference is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The speed of induction of anesthesia with an inhalational agent is increased by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Halothane

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The hemodynamic changes shown would most likely result from infusion of

BASIC Respiratory & Critical Care Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following muscle relaxants has a prolonged duration of action in a patient who is homozygous for atypical plasma cholinesterase?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Each of the following affects the induction dose of thiopental EXCEPT

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Phase II neuromuscular block is characterized by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

If administered prior to induction of anesthesia, which of the following drugs is most likely to cause tachycardia?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Following antagonism of a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant with neostigmine, twitch height is normal. To achieve this effect, the percentage of the acetylcholine receptor pool that must be free of muscle relaxant is

BASIC Equipment & Physics Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The five curves shown represent the uptake of enflurane, desflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. Which uptake curve best depicts desflurane?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 70-kg, 20-year-old athlete receives nitrous oxide and oxygen, thiopental, and fentanyl 1.25 mg (25 ml) during a knee reconstruction procedure lasting three hours. Postoperatively, he does not awaken or resume spontaneous breathing for three hours. The most likely explanation for the prolonged effect of fentanyl is

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is the best initial treatment of anaphylaxis that occurs during general anesthesia?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Local anesthetics block nerve conduction by

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is a sign of cyclosporine toxicity?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 68-year-old woman who is receiving urokinase for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli requires emergency laparotomy for a bleeding gastric ulcer. Which of the following agents is most appropriate to reverse the effects of urokinase?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Transfusions & Fluids

A 23-year-old man who is receiving his first anesthetic has not resumed spontaneous ventilation two hours after receiving succinylcholine. The train-of-four monitor shows no twitch response. Which of the following is the most likely cholinesterase genotype in this patient?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

A 75-year-old woman with significant carotid artery stenosis is scheduled for general anesthesia for repair of a fractured hip. Which of the following is the greatest disadvantage of using propofol as an induction agent in this patient?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

The concentration of bupivacaine is higher in maternal blood than in fetal blood because

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics OB

Compared with halothane, desflurane has which of the following characteristics?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Cyanide toxicity from nitroprusside is unlikely in patients with renal dysfunction because

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

A 70-kg 78-year-old man undergoing small-bowel resection during anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen becomes hypotensive and develops frothy pink sputum in the endotracheal tube. Heart rate is 50 bpm, blood pressure is 75/60 mmHg, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure is 22 mmHg, and cardiac output is 1.7 L/min. The most appropriate initial step in management is administration of which of the following?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics General

Which of the following is associated with the application of a transdermal fentanyl patch?

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

A 19-year-old woman has severe nausea and vomiting following laparoscopy. After intramuscular administration of prochlorperazine 10 mg, she has muscle spasms in the face, neck, and tongue. Which of the following is the most appropriate management?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is a side effect of beta-adrenergic blockade?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics

Which of the following is most responsible for the duration of action of local anesthetics?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics Regional & Pain

Severe nausea and vomiting in the PACU is most effectively treated with a drug that acts as an antagonist at which of the following receptors?

BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics