During induction of anesthesia, a patient is breathing isoflurane from a semiclosed circle absorber system. The temperature-compensated vaporizer is set to deliver isoflurane 1.5%. Which of the following will result in the lowest inspired concentration of isoflurane?
(A) Doubling the length of circle system hoses
(B) Decreasing the barometric pressure
(C) Changing from rubber to plastic breathing hoses
A 30-kg patient with asthma is receiving general anesthesia and being mechanically ventilated with a measured tidal volume of 300 mL. Increasing the fresh gas flow from 3 L/min to 9 L/min without changing the ventilatory rate or I:E ratio will result in
A radial artery catheter is to be used for blood pressure measurement during a sitting craniotomy. When zeroing the transducer, which of the following describes the best levels for placement of the transducer and opening of the system to air? (Transducer, Opening to Air)
A 35-kg child requires mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen at a tidal volume of 350 ml and a rate of 20/min during a severe asthma attack. The most likely cause of severe hypotension after initiating mechanical ventilation is
A healthy, 18-year-old, 65-kg woman undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy is being monitored with a properly functioning and calibrated capnograph. The end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration is 6%, and the inspired carbon dioxide concentration is 1%. This may be caused by each of the following EXCEPT
(A) malfunction of the expiratory valve in a circle system
(B) low gas inflow with a Bain circuit
(C) exhausted soda lime within a circle system
(D) absorption of carbon dioxide from carbon dioxide laparoscopy
An otherwise healthy 16-year-old girl is undergoing posterior spinal fusion for thoracolumbar scoliosis. During the procedure, the most likely cause of a marked decrease in the amplitude of the somatosensory evoked potentials after stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve is
(A) administration of fentanyl 30 jag /kg for induction
(B) administration of isoflurane 1.3 MAC for maintenance
(C) administration of vecuronium 0.15 mg/kg
(D) a decrease in body temperature from 37 to 35°C
An otherwise healthy 20-year-old man undergoes laser surgery for vocal cord polyp removal. During jet ventilation with 100% oxygen, arterial blood gas analysis shows PaO2 90 mmHg, PaCO2 40 mmHg, and pH 7.40. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
A 75-year-old man with a left bundle branch block is undergoing placement of a pulmonary artery catheter through the right internal jugular vein. He becomes pale and his heart rate decreases to 40 bpm when the catheter tip enters the right ventricle. The most likely cause is
A neurologically intact 48-year-old woman is scheduled for removal of a parietal lobe arteriovenous malformation. The relative risk for complete resection is to be determined by a test occlusion of the feeding artery. Which of the following intraoperative monitoring techniques is most appropriate for this test?
(A) Brain stem auditory evoked potentials
(B) Cerebral blood flow using radioactive xenon
(D) Evoked potentials elicited by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve
During use of the ventilator on an anesthesia machine, positive pressure is noted on the airway pressure gauge during exhalation. Positive end-expiratory pressure has not been purposefully added to the breathing circuit. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
(A) Closure of the pop-off valve in the circle system
(B) Excessive tidal volume settings on the ventilator
(C) Obstruction of the pressure relief valve on the scavenging system
(D) Overinflation of the endotracheal tube balloon
The capnographic tracing is from a 2-month-old infant anesthetized using a pediatric circle system and mask at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. The sampling port is in the elbow connector. This tracing indicates
(A) adequate alveolar ventilation
(B) exhausted soda lime
(C) expired halothane concentrations representative of alveolar concentrations
Arterial pressure in the radial artery is 155/70 mmHg measured by a correctly calibrated catheter-transducer system. At the same time, aortic pressure is 140/75 mmHg using a high-fidelity catheter tip transducer. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is
(A) a large amount of air in the dome of the radial artery transducer
(B) coarctation of the aorta
(c) peripheral vascular constriction produced by sympathetic stimulation
(D) physiologic amplification of the waveform from the aorta to the radial artery
(E) too high a frequency response in the catheter-transducer system
A 16-year-old child has an arterial catheter inserted prior to a potentially difficult intubation for a craniofacial operation. While awake and breathing room air, arterial blood gas values are: PaO2 134 mm Hg, PaCO2 28 mm Hg, and pH 7.45. These values can be explained by
(A) excess heparin mixed with the arterial sample
(B) a patient core temperature of 38°C
(C) excess air entrained in the syringe during sampling
(D) storing the sample at room temperature for 15 minutes before processing
After inflation of both the tracheal and endobronchial cuffs of a left-sided double-lumen tube, the following are noted on auscultation of the chest: Left lumen clamped --> Breath sounds absent bilaterally; Right lumen clamped --> Breath sounds present on left only; Both lumens open --> Breath sounds present on left only. The most appropriate action is to
(A) decrease the endobronchial cuff volume
(B) decrease the tracheal cuff volume
(C) reinsert the tube, rotating it 180 degrees to the right
(D) suction both lumens
(E) withdraw the tube slightly and repeat the auscultory maneuvers
During general anesthesia using a modern anesthesia machine, a patient's spontaneous ventilation is manually assisted with a fresh gas flow of 5 L/min. A sudden malfunction of the pressure-relief (pop-off) valve of the circle absorption system occurs, and the valve cannot be opened. The most appropriate next step is to
A child undergoing general anesthesia is breathing spontaneously using the Jackson-Rees modification of the Ayres T-piece. Respiratory rate is 20/min and tidal volume is 75 ml. What is the minimum fresh gas flow required to prevent rebreathing?
A 68-year-old patient is undergoing total hip replacement during general anesthesia using positive pressure ventilation and neuromuscular blockade. Intraoperative monitoring shows a gradual decrease in end-tidal CO2, an increase in exhaled tidal volume, and an increase in measured FiO2. Which of the following is the most likely cause of these changes?
(A) Air entrainment around a deflated endotracheal tube cuff
(B) Channeling of the exhaled air through the carbon dioxide canister
(C) Fat embolism
(D) Inadequate muscle relaxation with spontaneous patient ventilation
Following antagonism of a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant with neostigmine, twitch height is normal. To achieve this effect, the percentage of the acetylcholine receptor pool that must be free of muscle relaxant is
A healthy patient is receiving general endotracheal anesthesia with nitrous oxide 4 L/min, oxygen 2 L/min, and isoflurane 1% with spontaneous ventilation. The inspiratory breathing hose becomes disconnected from the inspiratory valve. The earliest alarm will be produced by
(A) a pulse oximeter with finger probe set to alarm at 60% saturation
(B) a mass spectrometer set to alarm when no breath is detected for 30 seconds
(C) an oxygen analyzer mounted on the inspiratory valve outlet and set to alarm at 25% oxygen concentration
(D) a capnograph sensor at the Y-piece that alarms when end-tidal carbon dioxide tension is greater than 60
A 27-month-old, 14-kg infant with intestinal obstruction is anesthetized with nitrous oxide at 1 L/min, oxygen at 0.4 L/min, and halothane at 0.8% using a Bain circuit. Ventilation is controlled at a rate of 30/min. The child's temperature is 39°C, and the PaCO2 is 65 mmHg. Which of the following is most likely?
Oxygen 100 ml/min is bubbled through a vaporizer containing an anesthetic with a vapor pressure of 150 mmHg, and this mixture is added to a fresh gas flow of 5 L/min. The delivered anesthetic concentration is
While checking an anesthesia machine, opening the oxygen flow-control valve yields no oxygen flow, although the wall-mounted oxygen pipeline supply gauge reads 50 psig. Opening the backup oxygen cylinder results in normal oxygen flow. The most likely cause is
(A) failure of the oxygen pipeline supply
(B) failure of the second-stage oxygen pressure regulator
(C) a malfunctioning check valve in the oxygen pipeline supply inlet
An unconscious adult patient is being ventilated through an esophageal obturator airway (EOA) in the emergency department. In the absence of cervical spine injury, which of the following is appropriate?
(A) Use of the EOA for airway management until the patient regains consciousness
(B) Removal of the EOA before insertion of an endotracheal tube
(C) Placement of an endotracheal tube before removal of the EOA
(D) Removal of the EOA under fiberoptic endoscopic visualization
A pulmonary artery catheter is placed in an awake patient breathing room air. Typical right ventricular and pulmonary artery pressure tracings are obtained. With the catheter balloon inflated, blood drawn from the distal port has a PaO2 of 100 mmHg, while a simultaneous radial artery sample has a PaO2 of 90 mmHg. These data indicate that the
A Fluotec vaporizer is set to administer halothane 4% using a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. If the diluent gas flow is increased to 8 L/min, and at the same time the room temperature increases from 20 to 25°C, the approximate concentration of halothane delivered to the patient would be
A multi-orifices right heart catheter is being positioned by EKG control prior to sitting craniotomy. The EKG tracing is obtained between the distal tip of the catheter and the right arm lead. The most appropriate next step is to
During general anesthesia administered through a circle system, the soda lime absorbant is exhausted. No fresh soda lime is available for use. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step to prevent hypercapnia in this patient?
(A) Decreasing the dead space of the circle system
During laser excision of vocal cord polyps in a 5-year-old boy, dark smoke suddenly appears in the surgical field. The trachea is intubated and anesthesia is being maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen. The most appropriate initial step is to
An 88-kg man is anesthetized with 66% nitrous oxide, 33% oxygen, and 1% isoflurane using a circle system. Following tracheal intubation, the nitrous oxide flow is set at 1 L/min and the oxygen flow is set at 0.5 L/min. After two hours the oxygen monitor indicates a circuit oxygen concentration of only 25% despite the flows noted above. The most likely explanation for this discrepancy is
(A) decrease of oxygen pipeline pressure to 20 psi
(B) increase in the concentration of nitrous oxide in the circuit
A 30-year-old man who is undergoing laparotomy and resection of a large kidney tumor has a decrease in SpO2 from 100% to 92% and an increase in peak airway pressure from 20 to 35 cm H2O. Plateau pressure is unchanged at 18 cm H2O. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
An anesthesia machine is set to deliver oxygen 2 L/min, nitrous oxide 2 L/min, and sevoflurane. After 30 minutes of stable anesthesia, which of the following, is the most likely cause of a decrease in the oxygen analyzer reading from 50% to 30%?
(A) A leak in the ventilator bellows
(B) Accumulation of water on the oxygen sensor membrane
(C) Calibration at 100% oxygen using less than 100% oxygen
(D) Disconnection of the wall oxygen hose
(E) Presence of the oxygen analyzer in the expiratory limb
An air/oxygen blender with E-size cylinders is supplying gas to a Mapleson D circuit being used to ventilate a neonate during transport. The air tank is full (psi= 1900/625 L) and flow is 4 L/min. The oxygen tank flow is 5 L/min and the pressure gauge indicates 500 psi. If the flow rates remain unchanged, which of the following statements is correct?
(A) The air tank will be empty in 90 minutes
(B) The oxygen tank will be empty in 30 minutes
(C) The concentration of oxygen in the circuit is 60%
(D) The oxygen tank will fill with air when the pressure gauge falls below 50 psi
(E) The volume of oxygen remaining can be determined only by weighing the tank
A 55-year-old man is undergoing craniotomy in the sitting position. Mean arterial pressure is 75 mmHg; arterial blood gas values are PaCO2 41 mmHg and pH 7.37. End-tidal CO2 is 7 mmHg. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the increased PaCO2 to PetCO2 gradient?
(A) Decreased cardiac output
(B) Endobronchial intubation
(C) Hyperinflation of the lungs
(D) Partial disconnect of the capnograph sample tubing
Postoperatively, a patient is being mechanically ventilated by a constant-flow, pressure-cycled ventilator with the following initial settings: inspiratory/expiratory (I/E) ratio of 1:2, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 25 cmH2O, and rate of 10/min. One hour later, the I/E ratio is 1:4. Which of the following would ensure that the minute ventilation is the same as that initially set?
(A) Inflate the endotracheal tube cuff to prevent leakage
(B) Double the respiratory rate
(C) Decrease the expiratory pause until the I/E ratio is 1.0
A 2-year-old child has cardiac arrest during an inguinal herniorrhaphy under general anesthesia administered during a Jackson-Rees system. The graph shows end-tidal PCO2 monitored from the tip of the endotracheal tube during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; minute ventilation is unchanged. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the change beginning at the arrow?
An arterial blood sample is obtained from a patient undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass at 28 C. Analysis at 37 C shows a pH of 7.40 and PaCO2 of 40 mmHg. Which of the following values are most likely if the analysis is corrected to 28 C?
A 32-year-old woman is anesthetized for suboccipital craniotomy. During positioning, the capnograph shows an abrupt decrease in the slope of the expiratory upstroke. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A 46-year-old patient who abuses intravenous drugs develops acute aortic valvular insufficiency from bacterial endocarditis. Which of the following statements concerning pressures measured through a pulmonary artery catheter is true?
(A) Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure will underestimate left ventricular end-diastolic pressure
The lungs of a 7-kg infant are being ventilated with a volume-cycled ventilator at a rate of 20/min. The anesthetic circuit has a compressible volume of 5 ml/cm H2O, and the peak inspiratory pressure is 20 cmH2O. To achieve adequate ventilation, the ventilator tidal volume should be set at
During induction of general anesthesia in a patient with a supraglottic tumor, both intubation and subsequent ventilation via a face mask are impossible. A cricothyroidotomy is performed with a 16-gauge intravenous catheter. Which of the following statements is true?
(A) Application of pressures greater than 35 cmH2O to the catheter will increase the risk for pulmonary barotrauma
(B) PaC02 can be maintained at a normal level using a standard circle system attached to the catheter
(C) PaO2 greater than 100 mmHg can be maintained indefinitely using transtracheal jet ventilation with pure oxygen through the catheter
(D) Emergency surgical tracheostomy would have improved the likelihood of survival
(E) The presence of this tumor contraindicates jet ventilation via cricothyroidotomy
A patient whose trachea is intubated develops partial airway obstruction two hours after induction of fentanyl, nitrous oxide, oxygen anesthesia. The anesthesiologist discontinues the nitrous oxide and controls ventilation, and there is gradual improvement during the next hour. No evidence of a respiratory disorder is found at the conclusion of the anesthetic. Which of the following is most likely?
(A) The endotracheal tube was in the right mainstem bronchus
(B) The patient had an unrecognized air embolism
(C) The patient had a nitrous oxide pneumothorax
(D) The endotracheal tube cuff narrowed the airway
During anesthesia with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and a relaxant, the patient's lungs are being mechanically ventilated and there is a heated humidifier in the circuit. The most likely cause of an apparent increase in inspired oxygen concentration is
(A) a hole in the ventilator bellows
(B) backflow of fresh gas because of resistance in the humidifier
Arterial pressure in the radial artery is 155/70 mmHg measured by a correctly calibrated catheter-transducer system. At the same time aortic pressure is 140/75 mmHg using a high-fidelity catheter tip transducer. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is
(A) a large amount of air in the dome of the radial artery transducer
(B) coarctation of the aorta
(C) peripheral vascular constriction produced by sympathetic stimulation
(D) physiologic amplification of the wave form from the aorta to the radial artery
(E) too high a frequency response in the catheter-transducer system
A 5-year-old boy is to undergo microlaryngeal carbon dioxide laser vaporization of laryngotracheal papillomas under halothane administered through a small polyvinylchloride (PVC) endotracheal tube. The diluent gas mixture LEAST likely to support laser combustion of the PVC tube is