A 46-year-old man is scheduled for repair of an inguinal hernia. Six years ago, he had an episode of malignant hyperthermia during cholecystectomy. Which of the following is the most appropriate perioperative management?
(A) Administration of a regional anesthetic
(B) Administration of dantrolene orally for two days prior to surgery
(C) Avoidance of all inhalational anesthetics except isoflurane
(D) Avoidance of ester local anesthetics
(E) Flushing the anesthesia machine with oxygen 10 L/min for a minimum of 12 hours
During surgery of the forearm under axillary block, a patient has pain in the lateral aspect of the forearm and responds by flexing the elbow. The most likely cause is inadequate block of which of the following nerves?
A 32-year-old man who is addicted to opioids complains of pain in the PACU one hour after fixation of a mandibular fracture. He has received intravenous morphine 30 mg during the past hour. The most appropriate management is
(A) continued intravenous administration of morphine until the pain resolves
(B) intravenous administration of nalbuphine in 5-mg increments until the pain resolves
(C) intramuscular administration of hydroxyzine 75 mg
(D) evaluation for entrapment of the mandibular nerve
In an infant, spinal anesthesia to a sensory level of T8 is achieved with tetracaine administered at the L2-3 interspace. Compared with spinal anesthesia to the same sensory level in an adult, this anesthetic is associated with a
A 70-kg, 50-year-old man is scheduled for muscle flap closure of a decubitus ulcer over the sacrum. He has been quadriplegic at the level of C6-7 for six years. Which of the following is most likely to result from subarachnoid anesthesia with tetracaine 10 mg for this procedure?
Five minutes after intrathecal administration of tetracaine 12 mg in hyperbaric solution, a 60-year-old man has a weak hand grasp. Respirations are normal, heart rate has decreased from 80 to 45 bpm, and blood pressure has decreased from 150/80 to 90/50 mmHg. The most appropriate management at this time is
(A) administration of atropine
(B) administration of ephedrine
(C) administration of phenylephrine
(D) placement of the patient in the head-down position
Percutanous cordotomy is being considered for a patient with severe pain that has persisted for three months after amputation of the arm for osteogenic sarcoma. Which of the following statements is true?
(A) An effective cordotomy will produce motor block
(B) A series of stellate ganglion blocks will provide permanent relief
(C) Cordotomy must be performed with the patient awake
(D) Cordotomy will effectively relieve phantom limb pain
(E) Spinal opioids are an alternative treatment of this pain
A patient undergoes differential spinal block for evaluation of persistent foot pain. If the pain returns coincident with a decrease in skin temperature, which of the following is the most appropriate conclusion?
A 67-year-old man undergoes spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric tetracaine 10 mg for transurethral resection of the prostate. At the end of the 50-minute procedure, the level of anesthesia is T6 and blood pressure is 120/70 mmHg. Within two minutes after transfer to a stretcher, the patient has nausea and blood pressure decreases to 76/42 mmHg. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the acute hypotension?
A patient undergoes axillary block for placement of an arteriovenous shunt in the forearm. Blockade of the musculocutaneous nerve is not achieved. Injection of a local anesthetic at which of the following sites will provide the required sensory block?
(A) Between the tendon of the palmaris longus and flexor carpi radialis
(B) Body of coracpbrachialis muscle
(C) Medial to the brachial artery at the elbow
(D) Proximal to the medial epicondyle against the medial surface of the humerus
(E) Superficial to the pulse of the axillary artery
A 65-year-old woman has respiratory distress and loss of consciousness immediately following superficial and deep cervical plexus block for right carotid endarterectomy. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A 40-year-old man who is scheduled to undergo repair of a tendon laceration of the left hand has complete anesthesia in the median, radial, and ulnar nerve distributions after supraclavicular block. Two hours of tourniquet inflation are required for completion of the procedure. The most appropriate next step is an additional block of which of the following?
An 18-year-old woman has knee pain during arthroscopy performed with femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for repair of a torn medial meniscus. The most appropriate management is addition of which of the following nerve blocks?
A 40-year-old woman has continuous nondermatomal burning pain of the distal foot four weeks after sustaining a metatarsal fracture. On examination, the foot is mildly swollen, tender, and cool. Which of the following statements concerning this condition is true?
(A) A radiograph of the distal bones of the painful foot will show severe osteoporosis
(B) A technetium scan of the distal joints of the painful foot will show decreased uptake
(C) Early use of opioid analgesia will prevent progression of the symptoms
(D) Intravenous phentolamine will relieve the pain
(E) The chance of spontaneous recovery within eight weeks is greater than 80%
A patient has pain in the left thoracic wall associated with metastatic rib lesions. An intrathecal neurolytic block with 6% phenol in glycerin is planned for pain relief. Prior to performing the block, the patient should be placed in which of the following positions?
A 30-year-old man receives spinal anesthesia to the level of T4. Ten minutes later, heart rate and blood pressure abruptly decrease to 30 bpm and 60/25 mmHg, respectively. The most appropriate management is administration of which of the following drugs?
Nine months after sustaining an injury to the left forearm, a 30-year-old woman has diffuse, burning pain on the anterior aspect of the forearm and posterior aspect of the hand and discoloration of the skin in the affected areas. The patient should be informed that
(A) if left untreated, muscle atrophy may develop in the involved limb
(B) if left untreated, the pain will remain well localized
(C) physical therapy is not indicated
(D) the symptoms are directly related to the severity of the initial injury
(E) the symptoms are most likely secondary to underlying peripheral vascular disease
A 70-year-old man with stable angina is scheduled for cataract removal with a retrobulbar block. After injection of 5 ml of 0.75% bupivacaine, heart rate decreases from 90 to 55 bpm, and frequent premature ventricular contractions are noted on the EKG. These changes are most likely caused by
An obese, 75-year-old woman is scheduled for open reduction of a left forearm fracture. Thirty minutes after successful interscalene block using 20 ml of 2% lidocaine, she becomes dyspneic. The dyspnea is most likely related to
Following a vaginal hysterectomy in the lithotomy position under general anesthesia, a patient has numbness of the lateral aspect of the left calf and medial half of the dorsum of the left foot. On physical examination she has footdrop and the toes cannot be extended. Which nerve is most likely to be involved?
A patient receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy for depression undergoes an emergency cholecystectomy. Which of the following is the best means of providing postoperative analgesia in this patient?
(A) Epidural analgesia using 0.25% bupivacaine
(B) Intravenous meperidine
(C) Epidural analgesia using meperidine
(D) Epidural analgesia using 1% lidocaine with epinephrine
(E) Intercostal analgesia using 1% lidocaine with epinephrine
A 70-kg patient experiences pain on incision of a thigh abscess. The area around the abscess had been infiltrated with 30 ml of 1% lidocaine in 1:200,000 epinephrine. The local anesthetic was most likely ineffective because of
(A) acidosis at the site of the injection
(B) epinephrine-induced limitation of drug diffusion
Surgery is cancelled 10 minutes after initiation of intravenous regional anesthesia with 50 ml of lidocaine 0.5%. To terminate anesthesia safely, what is the most appropriate timing for deflating the tourniquet?
(A) Immediately if benzodiazepines have been administered
(B) Immediately after intravenous administration of ephedrine 10 mg
(C) Immediately, followed by repeated reinflation and deflation
(D) In no less than 20 minutes after initial injection
(E) In no less than 45 minutes after initial injection
A 65-year-old man undergoes prostatectomy in the lithotomy position under spinal anesthesia using bupivacaine 12 mg. Ten hours later, he reports that his left foot is numb. Examination shows decreased pinprick sensation over the lateral dorsal aspect of the left foot; dorsiflexion is limited. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
In an Infant, spinal anesthesia to a sensory level of T8 is achieved with tetracaine administered at the L2-3 interspace. Compared with spinal anesthesia to the same sensory level in an adult, this anesthetic is associated with a
Twenty minutes after an axillary block, the patient reports feeling over the "back of the hand." Examination shows normal sensation over the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the hand and the dorsal base of the thumb and index finger. Supplementary anesthesia of this area can be provided by blocking which of the following nerves?
In a patient receiving an epidural analgesic infusion postoperatively, clear fluid is noted to drip back freely from the epidural catheter. Each of the following findings correctly identifies the associated fluid EXCEPT
(A) precipitation when mixed with an equal volume of thiopental — local anesthetic
A 35-year-old man has acute onset of low back pain, lower extremity weakness, and bladder dysfunction. He had a lumbar laminectomy two years ago. A myelogram shows disk herniation at L4-5. The most appropriate management is
(A) bed rest
(B) administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent
A patient receives remifentanil 25 mcg just before retrobulbar block with 0.25% bupivacaine 4 mL. Over the next 10 minutes, he develops apnea and loses consciousness. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
(A) Effects of remifentanil
(B) Injection of local anesthetic into cerebrospinal fluid
Two months ago a 68-year-old man with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a transurethral resection of the prostate under spinal anesthesia with tetracaine plus epinephrine. He now has numbness and tingling in both feet and disturbance of gait. Physical examination demonstrates stocking-type hypesthesia of both feet and ankles. The most likely diagnosis is
(A) anterior spinal artery syndrome
(B) diabetic neuropathy
(C) adhesive arachnoiditis
(D) cauda equina syndrome
(E) peripheral nerve injury from the lithotomy position
An otherwise healthy 42-year-old woman is referred for management of pain associated with adenocarcinoma of the breast and metastasis to the anterior body of L3. She perceives the pain as moderate and currently takes no pain medication. Her oncologist estimates her life expectancy to be 18 months. The most appropriate initial management is
(A) a benzodiazepine as needed and at bedtime
(B) an oxycodone preparation as needed and a tricyclic antidepressant at bedtime
(C) intravenous patient-controlled analgesia
(D) morphine infusion via an implanted epidural catheter
One day after a vaginal hysterectomy under epidural anesthesia, a patient has numbness and inability to dorsiflex the right foot. Her legs were placed in leg holders during the operation. The most likely cause is
A 26-year-old woman comes to a pain clinic because of pain, swelling and limitation of motion in the right knee for six months following a blow to the knee. Findings on knee arthroscopy and leg roentgenograms are normal. The best trial of therapy is
(A) right paravertebral lumbar sympathetic nerve block
(B) epidural administration of a steroid
(C) intrathecal administration of an opioid
(D) tricyclic antidepressants for one month
(E) a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for five days
A 31-year-old man received an uneventful epidural anesthetic for arthroscopy of the knee and meniscectomy. Twenty-four hours later he still has painless flaccid paralysis in both legs. This clinical presentation is most consistent with
A 60-year-old man undergoes transurethral resection of a bladder tumor in the lithotomy position with spinal anesthesia. During the procedure the surgeon reports that the patient's right leg is "jumping." This movement is most likely caused by stimulation of which of the following nerves?
A 67-year-old man undergoes a perineal procedure under epidural anesthesia in the lithotomy position with extreme flexion of the thigh at the hip. No sedatives are used, and the surgery is uneventful. Forty-eight hours later, the patient cannot flex his left knee. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A 64-year-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease sustained fractures of ribs 4 through 8 on the left one hour ago. Examination shows agitation, heart rate of 120 bpm, respiratory rate of 30/min, and blood pressure of 180/100 mmHg. PaO2 is 70 mmHg and PaCO2 is 35 mmHg on room air. Radiographs of the chest show no abnormalities. Which of the following is the most appropriate immediate management?
(A) Continuous epidural analgesia using local anesthetics
(B) Mechanical ventilation
(C) Infusion of midazolam
(D) Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine sulfate
During open reduction of a tibial fracture, a tourniquet cuff is applied around the proximal thigh and inflated to 300 mmHg. Which of the following is most likely to prevent pain and hypertension caused by the tourniquet?
(A) Intravenous administration of fentanyl during subarachnoid block
A 75-year-old man in the PACU complains of severe pain following thoracotomy. Respiratory rate is 30/min; arterial blood gas values are PaO2 70 mmHg, PaCO2 56 mmHg, and pH 7.28 at an FiO2 of 0.6. The patient has a thoracic epidural catheter and received epidural morphine 2 mg 45 minutes earlier. Which of the following is the most appropriate immediate management?
(A) Intravenous administration of naloxone
(B) Epidural administration of additional morphine
A 28-year-old woman receives a lumbar epidural anesthetic for uncomplicated labor and delivery. During removal of the catheter, 1 cm breaks off and remains in her back. After informing the patient, the most appropriate management is
Forty-eight hours after thoracotomy, a patient's T6-7 epidural catheter is removed and the distal 2 cm is noted to be missing. The patient felt no pain during removal and neurologic examination shows no abnormalities. After informing the patient, which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
A patient is scheduled for amputation of the third metatarsal. A tourniquet will not be used during the procedure. The most effective anesthesia will be provided by block of which of the following nerves?
A 58-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and hyperactive gag reflex requires awake intubation prior to cervical spine stabilization. Which of the following regional nerve blocks is most appropriate?
A 45-kg, 80-year-old woman undergoes pin fixation of the right hip in the lateral decubitus position under spinal anesthesia. One day after the operation, she cannot move her left ankle or foot actively. The most likely cause is
A 54-year-old man receives 25 ml of a 50% alcohol and 0.25% bupivacaine solution for celiac plexus block. During the next 20 minutes, blood pressure decreases from 130/75 mmHg to 85/55 mmHg. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A 75-year-old man received an uneventful epidural anesthetic for total knee arthroplasty. Twenty-four hours later he has a painless flaccid paralysis in both legs. This clinical presentation is most consistent with
Six months after repair of a lacerated peroneal nerve, a patient has electric-shock-like pain when pressure is applied to the middle of the gastrocnemius muscle. The most appropriate initial management is
A patient receives 1.5% bupivacaine 40 ml and epinephrine 1:200,000 for axillary brachial plexus block for reduction of a forearm fracture. The tourniquet is inflated to 300 mmHg; 45 minutes later, the patient has pain that radiates to the posteromedial elbow. Which of the following nerves is NOT adequately blocked?
Mepivacaine 40 ml of a 1% solution with epinephrine 1:200,000 is injected into the brachial plexus sheath at the axilla after eliciting a paresthesia in the ulnar nerve distribution. Which of the following is most likely to remain intact?
(A) Adduction of the thumb
(B) Flexion at the wrist
(C) Sensation of the lateral forearm
(D) Sensation on the palmar surface of the lateral three and one half fingers
(E) Sensation on the palmar surface of the medial one and one half fingers
A 30-year-old primiparous woman delivered a healthy infant by cesarean section during uneventful spinal anesthesia with tetracaine 10 mg in 2 ml of 5% dextrose solution. Twelve hours after delivery she has bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensibility, but not touch, below T8 and paralysis of both legs. The most likely cause of this complication is
A patient is undergoing exploration of a stab wound to the left side of the neck. On awake laryngoscopy, the left vocal cord is in midposition and the right vocal cord is abducted during inspiration. The most likely cause of these findings is trauma to which of the following structures on the left?